PEPPER - Piper nigrum (2023)

PEPPER - Piper nigrum (1)

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Piper negro
BLACK PEPPER, WHITE PEPPER and GREEN PEPPER are obtained from the pepper plant.
Piper negrol
SWEDISH:Pepper / Black Pepper.
DANISH:Pepper / Black Pepper.
ICELANDIC:Pepper / Black Pepper.
FINNISH:Pepper / Black Pepper.
ENGLISH:Pepper / Piper / Indian Pepper (Black Pepper / White Pepper / Green Pepper).
GERMAN:Pepper / Black Pepper.
FRENCH:Pepper / Black Pepper.
CHINO:Hu jiao.
pepper families(Piperaceen).
PEPPER - Piper nigrum (2)
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botanical description
Pepper is a shrubby evergreen plant that can reach 5-6 meters in height and prefers to grow as a vine over other larger plants both in the wild and in cultivation. The plants have smooth, oval or heart-shaped, leathery leaves that are 12–18 cm long. The pepper plant is something special or sambu, and when growing it it is best to choose plants that have both male and female flowers. The flowers are small, white or green, and sit on pendulous infructescences 7-11 cm long. The female flowers are followed by spherical, single-seeded drupes that are green when immature but turn red or yellow when mature. There are approximately 50 peppercorns in each cluster, and three types of spices are obtained from the approximately 6 mm fruits: black, white and green pepper.Fruiting is richest in plants that are between 4 and 7 years old and one plant can produce up to 5 kg of peppercorns per year.
Originally growing wild in southern India and Sri Lanka. Pepper is grown in many tropical areas, particularly India, Indonesia, and South America. The pepper plant is dependent on a warm and not too dry climate, and the shrubs are often used as a companion crop where other crops are grown, e.g. in coffee plantationsCurrently, more than 100,000 tons of black and white pepper are produced annually, representing one third of the world's total spice sales. India accounts for half of world production.
Black, white and green pepper come from the same plant. The difference between the various types of peppers is that the fruits are harvested at different degrees of ripeness and are processed differently (see below). An essential oil is extracted from dried, unpeeled, semi-ripe, ground peppercorns by steam distillation. These peppercorns contain 2-4% essential oil. That is much more than what is found in white pepper, which is due to the fact that much of the essential oil is found in the peel of the fruit.
The fruit contains an essential oil (about 2-4% in black pepper), up to 9% alkaloids, approximately 11% protein, fatty oil and small amounts of vitamins and minerals.the etherealThe oil contains mainly phenols (eugenol, myristicin, safrole), terpenes (bisabolene, camphene, farnesene, limonene, myrcene, phellandrene, pinene, sabinene, selinene, thujene) and sesquiterpene (carophyllene). The essential oil does not contain the piperine alkaloid, which is found in 5-8% of black pepper and gives it a spicy flavor.
It is said that the fruits of the pepper and the essential oil obtained from them have the following properties: warms, strengthens, stimulates blood circulation and digestion, stimulates the appetite, laxative, diuretic, detoxifying, diaphoretic, antipyretic, analgesic, healing , antispasmodic, antiseptic, irritating to the skin, immunostimulant, stimulant and aphrodisiac.
Pepper and pepper-derived essential oil can be used for loss of appetite, poor digestion, nausea, stomach ache, heartburn, bloating, high gas, colic, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia, cold, flu, systemic weak immune system, poor circulation. , muscle stiffness, muscle pain, cold hands and feet, rheumatism, joint pain, toothache, cuts and wounds. Mentally, the oil can be used for impotence, lack of concentration, tiredness, hopelessness, apathy, passivity, and low sexual desire.

Pepper is one of the oldest known spices and has been used in the East for around 4,000 years. A description of the medicinal use of black pepper was found in a herbal book from the Tang Dynasty of China (6th century AD).According to Chinese elemental theory, the pepper fruit is hot and dry (white being the hottest) and belongs to the element of water.In Chinese medicine, pepper is considered a sedative and anti-nausea herb that has been used to cure malaria, cholera, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, and other digestive ailments.Ayurvedic (Indian) medicine classifies the fruit as warm and drying, increasing Vata and Pitta and decreasing Kapha.

Pepper has been used in Europe since at least the fifth century. It is known that the Romans used pepper as a spice in food and that it was in common use throughout the Middle Ages. Pepper has always been an important commodity and has been highly prized throughout history. In the old trading days, pepper was actually a reliable means of payment that could be used instead of money. The main reason why pepper is so popular all over the world is that it has a property that other spices often lack, namely its spiciness.

The spiciness has also given pepper a place in magic and folk medicine. In Norway, pepper was used as protection against the harmful influence of envious people, often to prevent food from being swallowed because "someone envy your food." In magical practice, the smell of paprika is associated with the planet Mars.

different shapes of pepper

Black, white and green pepper come from the same plant. Black pepper is harvested when the lower fruits turn red on the spikes. They are piled up to ferment for a few days and then dried in the sun or with artificial heat. It turns black and the pulp dries out and becomes the wrinkled outer layer of black peppercorns.

White pepper is obtained by soaking the ripe drupes in water for a few days to soften the pulp. The outermost layer is then removed by rolling it up, washing it and drying it. So, white pepper consists of the innermost hard part of the pulp and the seeds inside. It is globular and has a whitish to light grayish-yellow color. A good chunk of white pepper is simply black pepper without the skin.

Green bell pepper is the green fruit that is preserved or vacuum dried to preserve the color. Different varieties of peppers are cultivated which has resulted in a range of qualities on the market. There isn't much difference in flavor between black and white pepper, but white pepper is probably a bit milder. It is preferably used in light dishes where the spots of black pepper do not stand out well. Green pepper is less spicy and more aromatic, and has the advantage that whole peppercorns can be cooked with food, such as in lamb cabbage.

Common to green, white and black pepper is the alkaloid piperine, a substance with a pungent taste. The special aroma of pepper comes from an essential oil that is concentrated in the peel of the fruit. Because whole pepper retains its aroma and flavor much longer than ground pepper, you should stick to whole ground pepper when cooking if you're going to use it. This applies to both black and white pepper.

Medicinal uses of black pepper

Black pepper is often used to warm the body. Taken as a spice, pepper helps increase both sweating and urination, which helps reduce fever and eliminate toxins. In addition, pepper stimulates the taste buds and the secretion of digestive juices, which improves appetite and strengthens the digestive system in general. Therefore, pepper is used for digestive problems such as nausea, abdominal pain, colic, flatulence, heartburn, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and constipation. If you like fatty foods, pepper helps break down the food and allows the body to make the most of the nutrients.

Since pepper irritates the mucous membranes, foods highly seasoned with pepper are beneficial in case of high fever or cold. The spice irritates the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, causing increased secretion of a watery secretion that facilitates the expectoration of phlegm and the expulsion of mucus through the nose. In Ayurvedic medicine, black pepper is considered an excellent remedy for the first signs of most ailments. Yogis consider black pepper to be one of nature's most perfect foods, useful not only for curing diseases, but also for warding off many ailments. One recipe is to mix seven ground peppercorns (about 1/8 teaspoon of ground powder) with honey and consume each morning. Such a mixture of pepper and honey is suitable, for example, to overcome colds and sore throats. In acute diseases, this mixture can be taken three to four times a day.

Black pepper essential oil

Pepper essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of crushed, dried, ripe black peppercorns. "Light" and "heavy" oils are obtained by extracting low- or high-boiling fractions. An oleoresin is obtained by extraction with a solvent, but it is mainly used as a flavoring in foods.

Black pepper essential oil is aqua white or slightly olive in color and has a fresh, dry and woody, warm and spicy aroma. Black pepper is very warm and stimulating and is used in aromatherapy for a variety of ailments and problems. It has an appetizing and antispasmodic effect on digestion and can be used in aromatherapy for diarrhea and constipation, as well as severe bloating. However, its main use relates to use for muscle pain and stiffness or fatigue. The oil causes blood to rise to the surface of the skin (rube fasient) and is used to provide heat to the areas where it is applied. This will be able to soften stiff and sore muscles and therefore black pepper oil is good to use both before and after training and other muscle exertions. Otherwise, aromatherapists use black pepper oil for tired legs, muscle tension, joint pain, rheumatic pain, and nerve pain.

The essential oil acts on the respiratory organs in airborne infections and can be used in a warm bath for colds, infections, fever and fatigue. The oil is effective against bacteria and viruses and has an antibacterial effect.staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus faecalis,Escherichia coliand other pathogens. Black pepper also has an antioxidant effect.

Black pepper essential oil has a strengthening and mentally stimulating effect. The oil conveys a good sense of security and emotional resistance and ensures a "good grounding". Balances the energy between the chakras, especially between the solar plexus and the heart chakra. The oil has a warm and uplifting effect on the heart and replaces apathy with vigor and good motivation when the going gets tough. Black pepper is great for situations that make you nervous, like when you have to make an awkward phone call or give a speech. Therefore, black pepper essential oil is both mentally stimulating and physically energizing. For example, if you have to drive at night, inhaling the aroma of black pepper can help you stay awake. Black pepper essential oil is also known as an aphrodisiac. It has a warm and uplifting effect and can be good for hopelessness and apathy in love life.

Black pepper oil has a masculine scent and can spice up many perfume blends. It can be used in massage oils, aroma lamps, and air purifiers. Since the oil is irritating to the skin, it can only be used in small amounts in aromatherapy oil blends. In the case of rheumatic ailments and when a warming effect is required, the oil can be added to the bath water.

horseradish with pepper

The advice of an old woman for a cold is to drink warm milk with pepper and honey. Hot peppery drinks have also been used for colic. Sprinkling ground black pepper on fresh wounds stops bleeding and healing is good, but should only be used on wounds that are not too deep.

Warnings, side effects and contraindications

Until further research is available, black pepper should not be given to pregnant or lactating women or to children for therapeutic purposes. The herb should also not be used by people who are hypersensitive to black pepper. Otherwise, be aware that black pepper increases blood pressure.

Black pepper essential oil increases blood pressure and should not be used if you have heart problems, liver disease, kidney disease, or during pregnancy. The oil is not toxic or sensitizing, but in high doses it can irritate the skin and kidneys. Used in aromatherapy, the essential oil should be highly diluted and used only in moderate amounts. Because black pepper essential oil heats up, it should not be used for inflammatory conditions. Black pepper is also one of the strongly scented oils that is said to render homeopathic remedies ineffective. The essential oil should only be used internally under medical supervision.

PEPPER - Piper nigrum (3)

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Bowen, Deni:Die neue Enzyklopädie der Royal Horticultural Society of Herbs & Their Uses. Londres, Dorling Kindersley 2002.
Riter, Andreas:Damm's Big Book of Medicinal Herbs. Oslo, NW Dam & Son 2003.
Herzog, James A.:CRC Manual of Medicinal Spices. Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press 2002.
The editorThe best:Our medicinal plants.Oslo,The best A/S 1984.
Faegri, Knut:Season. In cooking and in world history.Oslo,JW CappelensVerlag 1996.
Graedon, Joe and Teresa Graedon:The Town Pharmacy. Home remedies and herbal remedies.NY,Press of San Martin 1999.
Hepburn, Bernie:aroma pharmacy.Oslo,Hilt und Hansteen / BokklubbenEnergica 1994.
Krauss, Michael:Aromatherapy for every day. Orsa, HÄLSAböckeroch Verlag Simon & Wahl 1995.
Lawless, Julia: THeIllustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils.Shaftesbury,Element Books 1995.
McIntyre, Ana:Household advice on common diseases.Oslo,Gyldendal NorskForlag 1994.
Odi, Penelope:joint pain. London, SouvenirPress 2001.
Polunin, Miriam:food for good health.Oslo,NW Damm & Son AS 1998.
Salvesen, Anna and Finn Andersen:Aromatherapy - essential oils for well-being. ArtaromaförlagetAB Third edition 2002.
Skidmore-Roth, Linda:Mosby's Handbook of Herbs and Natural Supplements.St. louis,Mobi 2001.
Swahn, Jan-Öjvind:Season.The history of the origin, use and properties of spices.Oslo,Technological editorial 1991.
Whitton, Shirley:Essential oils and essences. A practical guide to aromatherapy and natural health. Colonia, Koenemann 1999.
Williamson, Elisabeth M.:Alfareros Kräuterzyklopädie. Essex, Saffron Walden 2003.

PEPPER - Piper nigrum (4)

IMPORTANT: What is written about the herb and its medicinal effects on certain ailments and diseases is for information only. Urtekilden is not responsible for any damage that may occur when using this herb or the preparations that contain it.

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The texts and images on this site may not be published in any other way, either electronically or in print, without the permission of Urtekilden.

This page was last modified on 02/06/2021
Norwegian name index
Index of scientific names


What is pepper nigrum use for? ›

Considered as the "King of spices", black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a widely used spice which adds flavor of its own to dishes, and also enhances the taste of other ingredients. Piper nigrum has also been extensively explored for its biological properties and its bioactive phyto-compounds.

What is Piper nigrum good for? ›

Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is an annual vine that belongs to family Piperaceae. Its dry fruits are used as a spice worldwide. Black pepper possesses antioxidant, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory property (Duke et al., 2003).

Is Piper nigrum edible? ›

Edible Uses

A hot flavour. The globose, red fruit is 4 - 6mm in diameter[418 ]. A milder flavoured spice, known as white pepper, can be obtained if the outer coverings of the fruit are removed[301 ]. Unripe green fruits are pickled in vinegar and used as a relish[301 ].

Are Piper nigrum leaves edible? ›

Large-leaved perennial, known for its leaves, which are used for their spicy aromatic scent and flavor, some liken to root beer, others to anise-clove. The leaves are chopped and used for flavoring, as well as used whole, as wrappings for meats, tamales, etc.

Who should not take black pepper? ›

Bleeding conditions: Piperine, a chemical in black pepper, might slow blood clotting. Taking black pepper in amounts greater than those in food might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Is black pepper OK for liver? ›

An All-Purpose Spice

It encourages urination and sweating, which help rid the body of harmful toxins. As a result, evidence shows that black pepper may help keep the liver healthy.

Does black pepper raise blood pressure? ›

Is black pepper good for blood pressure? A. The active ingredient in back pepper, piperine is known to lower blood pressure and improve cardiovascular health.

Does black pepper have side effects? ›

However, eating large amounts of black pepper or taking high-dose supplements may lead to adverse side effects, such as burning sensations in the throat or stomach ( 23 ).

Is black pepper anti-inflammatory? ›

Known as the “King of Spices,” black pepper has been valued for its flavor and antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory benefits. Studies have shown that the chemical compounds of black pepper, particularly piperine, may be effective in the early acute inflammatory process.

When should you not use black pepper? ›

Black pepper contains a chemical called piperine. Piperine might slow blood clotting. In theory, taking black pepper along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Is black nightshade fatal? ›

When taken by mouth: Black nightshade unripe berries and leaves are likely unsafe. These contain a toxic chemical called solanine. At lower doses, they can cause nausea, vomiting, and other side effects. At higher doses, they can cause severe poisoning, which can lead to death.

Which is the best black pepper in the world? ›

Tellicherry (origin: India)

Tellicherry peppercorns are like San Marzano tomatoes: they need to come from Tellicherry, a city on the Malabar coast of Kerala in India. They're considered some of the finest peppercorns in the world, and one of the few "names" in pepper that people are familiar with.

Does black pepper have medicinal properties? ›

Black pepper and its active compound piperine may have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Laboratory studies suggest that black pepper may improve cholesterol levels, blood sugar control, and brain and gut health.

How can you tell if a black nightshade is edible? ›

It is important to note that only ripe, solid-colored dark purple-black berries are edible. Any berry with a hint of green on the purple surface may be considered unripe. Black Nightshade berries have a smooth, taut, and somewhat tough skin with a dull, matte appearance.

Are pepper leaves poisonous to humans? ›

The leaves from sweet pepper and hot pepper plants (Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens) are edible and they are downright delicious. They have a milder pepper flavor than the peppers themselves, and taste a little like white pepper—delicate and fragrant.

Can black pepper damage kidneys? ›

Eat Fewer Foods with a High Oxalate Content

If you have been diagnosed with calcium oxalate kidney stones, your doctor may recommend that you limit your intake of foods that contain higher amounts of oxalate, such as beets, black pepper, black tea, chocolate, nuts, potatoes, rhubarb, soy products, and spinach.

Does pepper mess with your blood pressure? ›

It has been proven that consuming spicy foods from peppers that contain capsaicin can help lower blood pressure.

Is black pepper bad for intestines? ›

Gastrointestinal problems:

According to studies, black pepper can cause damage to the gastric mucosa. Some subjects in the study exhibited symptoms of gastric bleeding after consuming black pepper. In some studies, the main component of black pepper, piperine, has caused severe digestion problems.

Is black pepper good for your arteries? ›

It is also the main component that gives black pepper its health-boosting qualities. Piperine is considered a type of antioxidant that helps to lower the risk of chronic illnesses like atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and neurological conditions.

What is best to drink for your liver? ›

Coffee is one of the best beverages you can drink to promote liver health. Studies have shown that drinking coffee protects the liver from disease, even among those who already have problems with this organ.

Can black pepper detox the body? ›

Black pepper, also known as the king of spices has a load of health benefits and a major benefit of consuming pepper is that it aids in weight loss. It is also said to be good for digestion and prevents cancer by detoxifying the body. When this spice is added to the food, it makes your food taste better and spicier.

Is black pepper good for diabetes? ›


It improves insulin sensitivity and your body's capacity to lower blood sugar levels and prevent sugar spikes. It contains a vital ingredient 'piperine' that regulates the balance.

Does black pepper raise cholesterol? ›

Abstract. Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects.

Is too much black pepper harmful? ›

Is black pepper bad for you? While black pepper doesn't have the same negative effect on your health as salt, eating too much may cause discomfort. “Mostly, too much black pepper can upset your stomach,” says Culbertson. “Overdoing it may lead to the feeling of heartburn or indigestion.”

Does black pepper cause kidney stones? ›

May form Kidney Stones

Though black pepper has high quantities of oxalate present in it, its small serving makes it totally safe from consuming dangerous quantities of oxalate. To counter the kidney stone issue you need to limit your intake of foods that contain higher amounts of oxalate, including black pepper.

Is black pepper a natural antibiotic? ›

In summary, black pepper has exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity to the both bacteria. Piperine, terpenes and flavones are the main chemicals in black pepper.

Can black pepper cure arthritis? ›

Another popular and well-researched spice, black pepper has both pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. According to one study involving piperine, the ingredient that produces black pepper's sharp taste, it may be almost as effective for arthritis sufferers as prednisolone, a common arthritis medication.

Which pepper is good for arthritis? ›

Cayenne pepper

Cayenne and other dried chilies spice up sauces, marinades and rubs. Chilies can be hot, so go easy in the beginning. Not only can cayenne pepper help with arthritis swelling, it will give your dish a delicious kick.

What two spices are good for arthritis? ›

4 best spices for arthritis
  • Garlic. Garlic has traditionally been used as an antidote for disease. ...
  • Ginger. Ginger has been used as folk medicine for centuries. ...
  • Cinnamon. Once so valuable and rare, cinnamon was often given as gifts to kings. ...
  • Turmeric.

Does black pepper affect sleep? ›

Black pepper exhibits various biological properties, including anticancer [23], analgesic [24], anticonvulsant [25], antidepressant [26], and hepatoprotective [27] effects. Moreover, black pepper exerts a hypnotic effect by increasing hexobarbital sleeping time [28].

Does black pepper speed up your metabolism? ›

Black Pepper - This common household ingredient can boost metabolism through its main component -- piperine.

What happens if you touch black nightshade? ›

This plant is not dangerous to touch, but do make sure you wash your hands thoroughly if you've handled it to avoid ingesting the toxins that remain on your hands.

What happens if a human eats nightshade? ›

Although the berries might be the most tempting part of Deadly nightshade, all parts of this plant are poisonous if ingested. It causes a range of symptoms including blurred vision, a rash, headaches, slurred speech, hallucinations, convulsions and eventually death.

What happens if a dog eats black nightshade? ›

Clinical Signs: Hypersalivation, inappetence, severe gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea, drowsiness, CNS depression, confusion, behavioral change, weakness, dilated pupils, slow heart rate.

What kind of black pepper do chefs use? ›

Sourced especially for chefs, McCormick Culinary Whole Black Pepper comes from mature pepper berries, perfectly sun-dried for seven to ten days, in a whole, uniform peppercorn format to add flavor in pickling mixes, marinades and sauces. McCormick Culinary Whole Black Pepper is kosher with no MSG added.

What is the most expensive black pepper? ›

Touted as the most expensive pepper in the world, Kampot Pepper is highly sought after by top chefs around the world for its exception taste and quality. Pepper cultivation in Cambodia dates back to the 13th century. Kampot, located along the country's southern coast, is famed for the spice.

Which pepper is healthiest? ›

Red bell peppers are the most nutrient-dense, which makes them the healthiest pepper. This is because they've been on the vine for longer when compared to orange, yellow and green peppers, and in that order too.

What part of black nightshade is poisonous? ›

Eastern black nightshade is toxic, as are most plants in the nightshade family. All parts of the plant are considered poisonous, but the green leaves, stems, and seeds are especially toxic.

Why is black nightshade a problem? ›

Apart from problems with competition, black nightshade is a problem in pea crops as the berries are hard to separate from peas at harvest time, especially from “baby peas” which are the younger smaller peas which are similar in size to nightshade berries.

Why are they called nightshades? ›

Nightshade plants contain different types of alkaloid compounds, food factors that cause physiological changes in the body. The origin of the name “nightshade” is not clear, but some suggest the name describes how these plants prefer to grow and flower in the night and shade.

Can black pepper be used as medicine? ›

Black pepper, and its alkaloid component piperine, have associations with many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effects and potential cancer-fighting properties. People have used pepper in traditional medicine for thousands of years, especially in Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine.

Is black pepper an antibiotic? ›

In summary, black pepper has exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity to the both bacteria. Piperine, terpenes and flavones are the main chemicals in black pepper.

Can black pepper cure high blood pressure? ›

As per a study published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, the presence of a compound - Piperine in black pepper can help in managing as well as controlling high blood pressure.

Can black pepper cause inflammation? ›

Along with piperine, black pepper contains other anti-inflammatory compounds — including the essential oils limonene and beta-caryophyllene — that may protect against inflammation, cellular damage, and disease ( 9 , 10 ).

Is black pepper anti aging? ›

The spice contains high amounts of antioxidants that protects your skin against anti aging and prevents fine lines. So add the spice to your daily diet for beautiful skin. Black pepper has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties that help reduce acne.

Is black pepper good for the colon? ›

It improves bowel movement

Once you start consuming black pepper regularly, it can help in curbing constipation, nausea, among certain bacterial forms of disorders.

Can black pepper damage your stomach? ›

Gastrointestinal problems:

According to studies, black pepper can cause damage to the gastric mucosa. Some subjects in the study exhibited symptoms of gastric bleeding after consuming black pepper. In some studies, the main component of black pepper, piperine, has caused severe digestion problems.

Does black pepper break down mucus? ›

Pepper has been since ancient times been known as a highly efficient decongestant. It helps clear the mucus by making it thinner and watery. Sprinkling some freshly ground black pepper onto your meals helps prevent and tame cold.


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